The sock is contructed as an extension of the leg, the top and bottom essentially separate pieces, but attached to the bottom of the leg. (See yellow bit in the diagram.)
- Point your toes, and take circumferences from your ankle towards your toes, measuring the distance between the circumferences along the top of your foot (except your heel circumference).
- Measure the width of your heel.
- Draw around your toes.
I would suggest making the sock a little longer than it should be, so your toes aren't cramped: not only wouldn't I scale the part of the foot between the toes and the heel, I would actually add half an inch or so.
- The piece for the top of the foot is just the length you measured, by half the circumferences (but not the heel circumference), with your toes outline copied onto the end. Write 'top' on it, and make sure it's on the 'front of body' side of the leg.
- The piece for the bottom of the foot starts out the same as the top piece, so copy that. Fold it in half to find the centre line running from ankles to toes, and mark that centre.
- Mark a vertical where the heel comes. On that line, mark the heel width, spread equally on either side of the centre line.
- Cut along the heel vertical, and spread the pieces by twice the distance from heel width to the edge. This will let you draw quarter-circles that are centred on the heel width marks that just touch between the toe and heel pieces. (The length of each quarter circle should be the same as or a little smaller than the height of the heel.)
- Note: I now tend to cut the sole off entirely, because cutting into the points of the heel darts (and sewing them afterwards) is just too fiddly.
- Make alignment notches at the toes and heel, on both the sole and the top-of-foot pieces, as shown by the pinky arrows.
- The top and bottom pieces should be attached to the bottom of the leg at the ankle, as shown in the yellow figure. Be careful that the heel piece is on the back-of-leg side of the leg piece, or your socks will be on backwards.
- Double-check that the top of the foot is on the same side of the leg as the front of the body.
- Double-check that the big toe is on the same side as the inside leg seam.
- The leg, with sock pieces attached, should look like the yellow diagram to the right. The back of the leg is shown topmost.
- Sew the heel dart curves (or right around the heel semicircle, if you elected to cut the sole separate).
- Pin the heel seams flat but perpendicular to the side seam while sewing it (so it leaves the side seam as soon as possible, and isn't held sewn forwards or backwards into the seam).
- Sew the sock bottom to its top as part of the leg seams.
Previously, I used this sock pattern, but I vastly prefer the one described above.